Environmental conservation - Ανοικτό Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου - Open University of Cyprus
Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:50

DEE211: Environmental Protection Law

Η θεματική ενότητα εξετάζει τα κρισιμότερα ζητήματα που αφορούν στην υιοθέτηση και εφαρμογή των περιβαλλοντικών μέτρων της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Μεταξύ άλλων διερευνώνται οι στόχοι και αρχές της Ευρωπαϊκής περιβαλλοντικής πολιτικής, αναλύονται τα βασικότερα περιβαλλοντικά νομοθετήματα της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, καθώς επίσης εξετάζονται κριτικά οι σχετικές αποφάσεις του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Ιδιαίτερη προσοχή δίδεται σε συγκεκριμένους θεματικούς τομείς, όπως  η διαχείριση των αποβλήτων (π.χ. ανακύκλωση και πρόληψη των αποβλήτων), η προστασία της φύσης και της βιοποικιλότητας (π.χ. δάση, γενετικά μεταλλαγμένοι οργανισμοί), η προστασία και διαχείριση των υδάτων (π.χ. θαλάσσια ρύπανση,  εσωτερικά ύδατα) και το σύστηµα εµπορίας δικαιωµάτων εκποµπής αερίων θερµοκηπίου.

Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:39

DPP524: Water-Food-Energy Nexus

Module Purpose and Objectives

Global policies (e.g., EU Green deal) urge for sustainable resources management and GHG emissions mitigation. Water and energy resources, as well as food production systems management should be redesigned. Therefore, the course aims to introduce the students to the fundamental concepts of the nexus approach and present an analysis for food production and distribution, water, and energy management, focusing on arid and semi-arid areas. The course will contribute to decision making towards sustainable spatial planning (and land use related conflicts mitigation) by highlighting the tradeoffs among energy, water, and land use. The course will also introduce an ecosystem services “point of view” to sustainable resources management.   Teaching in this module will combine weekly online group consultations with a series of lab exercises using free software (CLIMEX, PEWI, Cool Farm Tool) accompanied by audiovisual educational material (weekly video-lectures and video-recorded practical exercises).

 

Module Content

  • Introduction: the need about a NEXUS approach
  • The “grammar” of the NEXUS
  • The FAO approach for WEF assessments
  • Food as an ecosystem service
  • Assessing food system sustainability
  • Climate change and food security – Modelling with Climex
  • WEF nexus assessment – Modelling using the Cool Farm Tool
  •  Agricultural water, food security and the nexus approach
  • Tools for agricultural water management
  • Using Ecosystem Services approaches in water management
  • Nexus assessment Case study
  • Energy intensity in food production systems
  • Low CO2 emissions energy production

 

Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:34

DPP514: Ecosystem Services

Module Purpose and Objectives

The aim of the course is to introduce to the concept of Ecosystem Services (ES) and their assessment. The link between biodiversity and ecosystem services and in turn with human well-being as a path towards environmental sustainability will be demonstrated. Students will become familiar with the challenges associated with the  identification, assessment, integration and reporting of ecosystem services in different
management areas and sector strategies. The course will include a practical part where the use of specific methods and techniques in valuation and mapping of ES will be demonstrated by using targeted case studies. Teaching in this module will combine weekly online group consultation online with a series of lab exercises using free software (PEWI, InVEST, Trade Off, EnviroAtlas) accompanied by audiovisual educational material (weekly video-lectures and video-recorded practical exercises).

Module Content

  • Key Concepts and Conceptual Frameworks
  • Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
  • Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being
  • Ecosystem Services Valuation
  • Quantification of ES
  • Mapping ES: Case study
  • National Level ES Assessments
  • Water Energy Food Nexus and ES
  • Ecological Design and Planning
  • Modelling ES: the InVEST method
  • ES and Protected Areas
  • Rapid ES assessments: the TESSA toolkit
  • ES and Sustainable Development

Objectives

The Postgraduate Dissertation contributes to the deepening of research in the subject of this Postgraduate program, to the familiarizations of students with the process of research and research methods and to provision of further specialized knowledge in the field of study which a student chooses for his/her dissertation.

The choice of topic and supervisor is equal in each of the offered courses of the Program or broader in the fields of knowledge which the program deals with. Students submit a dissertation proposal which must be accepted by a member of the teaching staff of the Program who agrees to serve as their supervisor. Alternatively, students may choose from a range of topics proposed by the academic staff of the Program. Theses are evaluated by a three-member academic committee. The three-member committee is approved by the School concerned (in this case the School of Pure and Applied Sciences) and consists of the dissertation supervisor and two members. All three members, an in particular the supervisor, should have research and scientific experience related to the proposed topic.

The dissertation is carried out in two parts (two courses i.e. DPP701Α and DPP701Β) over two semesters, the 3rd and 4th corresponding to 10 + 20 ECTS, respectively. The final document (completed dissertation) is subject to a public defense and formal exam. In order to be able to register for the dissertation, a student should complete successfully the courses DPP511 Sustainable Development and DPP512 Research Methods. When DPP701Α is completed, the first part of the Dissertation, the student can proceed with the second part, DPP701B. During the second part he/she completes the research and writing up of the dissertation.

The supervisor and both members of the committee evaluate whether the research has been completed in accordance with the required scientific criteria. Then the three-member panel checks whether the dissertation has also followed OUC's regulation and "Guidelines for Graduate Theses". On assessing the aforementioned, the three-member committee decides whether the student is ready defend his / her dissertation and thus complete his / her study programme.

The Program organizes public presentations (defenses) of theses at the end of each academic semester. During each Master's thesis presentation, the student presents his research and findings and receives questions from his three-member examination committee. Upon completion of the questions the student leaves and the three-member committee meet to evaluate the student's performance. By successful defending his/her Master's thesis the student completes his/her academic obligations and can be awarded his/her degree.

Learning Outcomes

  • Apply the concepts, theories and / or methodologies taught in the Program.
  • Deepening knowledge in one of the postgraduate program thematic areas.
  • Acquiring scientific and "expert-like" applied experience.
  • Ability to research primary and secondary sources, gather, classify, select, evaluate, synthesize and analyze material.
  • Ability to analyze and synthesize data, formulate mature critical thinking and speech.
  • Apply the rules of structure, writing, citing scientific sources and compiling bibliography.
  • Students can determine specific learning outcomes in collaboration with their supervisor

Objectives

The Postgraduate Dissertation contributes to the deepening of research in the subject of this Postgraduate program, to the familiarizations of students with the process of research and research methods and to provision of further specialized knowledge in the field of study which a student chooses for his/her dissertation.

The choice of topic and supervisor is equal in each of the offered courses of the Program or broader in the fields of knowledge which the program deals with. Students submit a dissertation proposal which must be accepted by a member of the teaching staff of the Program who agrees to serve as their supervisor. Alternatively, students may choose from a range of topics proposed by the academic staff of the Program. Theses are evaluated by a three-member academic committee. The three-member committee is approved by the School concerned (in this case the School of Pure and Applied Sciences) and consists of the dissertation supervisor and two members. All three members, an in particular the supervisor, should have research and scientific experience related to the proposed topic.

The dissertation is carried out in two parts (two courses i.e. DPP701Α and DPP701Β) over two semesters, the 3rd and 4th corresponding to 10 + 20 ECTS, respectively. The final document (completed dissertation) is subject to a public defense and formal exam. In order to be able to register for the dissertation, a student should complete successfully the courses DPP511 Sustainable Development and DPP512 Research Methods. When DPP701Α is completed, the first part of the Dissertation, the student can proceed with the second part, DPP701B. During the second part he/she completes the research and writing up of the dissertation.

The supervisor and both members of the committee evaluate whether the research has been completed in accordance with the required scientific criteria. Then the three-member panel checks whether the dissertation has also followed OUC's regulation and "Guidelines for Graduate Theses". On assessing the aforementioned, the three-member committee decides whether the student is ready defend his / her dissertation and thus complete his / her study programme.

The Program organizes public presentations (defenses) of theses at the end of each academic semester. During each Master's thesis presentation, the student presents his research and findings and receives questions from his three-member examination committee. Upon completion of the questions the student leaves and the three-member committee meet to evaluate the student's performance. By successful defending his/her Master's thesis the student completes his/her academic obligations and can be awarded his/her degree.

Learning Outcomes

  • Apply the concepts, theories and / or methodologies taught in the Program.
  • Deepening knowledge in one of the postgraduate program thematic areas.
  • Acquiring scientific and "expert-like" applied experience.
  • Ability to research primary and secondary sources, gather, classify, select, evaluate, synthesize and analyze material.
  • Ability to analyze and synthesize data, formulate mature critical thinking and speech.
  • Apply the rules of structure, writing, citing scientific sources and compiling bibliography.
  • Students can determine specific learning outcomes in collaboration with their supervisor
Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:26

DPP622: Terrestrial Ecosystem Management

Module Purpose and Objectives 

Terrestrial Ecosystem Management requires a thorough knowledge of ecosystem components’ interactions and their relationship with humans. Integrated ecosystem management focuses on ecosystem conservation with the aim to account for both ecological and human needs. An integrated framework which recognises the multiple uses, functions and services which ecosystem deliver. The module provides students a knowledge base and practical experience on biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystem management aspects.  The objectives of the course are to:

  • Provide students with knowledge of the basic function and services of terrestrial ecosystems in different spatial and temporal scales
  • Present the common assessment frameworks of ecosystem services evaluation
  • Demonstrate the use of specific techniques in terrestrial ecosystem management for using real world examples
  • Propose measures for the adaptation and mitigation of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems

 By successfully completing this module the student should be able to : 

  • Link the theory with the application of terrestrial ecosystem management
  • Produce management plans for species and habitats
  • Evaluate the multiple services of Protected Areas and the appropriate management
  • Use specialised software for land use change analysis and modelling, and ecosystem service assessment (CLUE, Landuse Scanner, PEWI)

 

Module Content

1. Principles of Ecosystem Management: Ecosystem Management Concepts, Ecosystem Approach, Ecological Integrity, Adaptive Management

2. Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services: Ecosystem Approach, Ecosystem Functions, Production Services, Regulatory, Cultural and Support Services, Goods, Indicators

3. Mediterranean Ecosystem Matorral, Maquis, Garrigue, Fynbos, Mallee, Chaparral, Phrygana, endemism, fire, grazing, adaptation, sclerophylly

4. Mountain Ecosystems: orogenesis, tectonics, volcanic phenomena, hydrology, soils, trees, forests, ecotones,

5. Climate Change & Ecosystems: Eastern Mediterranean Warming, Eastern Mediterranean Drying, Extreme Phenomena, Climate Models, Phenological Changes, Species Distribution, Mortality
6. Wildlife management: habitat, wildlife, hunting, r - strategy, k - strategy, habitat enhancement  and improvement, game reserves, endangered species protection
7. Habitat Management: vegetation properties, ecological succession, disturbance, management plans
8. Management of Protected Areas: Biosphere Reserves, National Parks, Natural Reserves, Nature Monument, Protected Landscape, management evaluation framework and process, management conflicts in protected areas
9. Restoration Ecology: restoration, enhancement, recovery, rehabilitation, ecological processes, restoration success, values ​​/ tresholds, invasive species
10. Infrastructure and Ecosystems: impact of infrastructures on species and habitats, wildlife mortality, surveillance, compensatory measures, spatial planning
11. Land Use Dynamics: Natural Environment, Physical Processes, Human Activities, Spatial Changes - Spatial Differences, Interaction of Environmental Factors and Land Use
12. Land Degradation & Desertification: Causes of Desertification, Biophysical / Socioeconomic Factors, Slow 'and' Rapid 'Variables, Dahlem Desertification Model, Desertification and Critical Thresholds, Desertification Syndromes
13. Landscape Character Assessment: Landscape Character Assessment (LCA), European Landscape Convention, Physiography, Cultural Dimension, Landscape Typology, Landscape Sensitivity

Hands on laboratory exercises will take place with the use of freeware such as QGIS (land use change), ILWIS (burnt areas mapping) CLUE landscanner (land use modelling) People in Ecosystems/Watershed Integration (PEWI) (modelling ecosystem services). In addition, with the help of Virtual Labs students will be able to take part in sampling and mapping activities in a simulated landscape.

Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:23

DPP621: Renewable Energy Sources

Module Purpose and Objectives 

DPP 621 is a specialization module. The aim of the student is to provid student with skills that will help him / her professionally in the field of Renewable Energy Sources. Energy production around the world is a complex and diverse issue that requires careful and careful management. It covers many aspects and combines paramount economic, environmental and social considerations.


Green forms of energy (or renewable energy sources, or new sources of energy, or green energy) are forms of energy utilized by various natural processes, such as wind, geothermal energy, water circulation and more. The term "green" refers to two basic characteristics. Firstly, no active intervention is needed to exploit them (e.g. mining, pumping or burning) compared to the hitherto used energy sources, but simply exploiting the existing energy flow in nature. Second, they are "clean" forms of energy, very "environmentally friendly", that do not release hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide or toxic and radioactive waste, like other large-scale sources of energy. So renewable energy is considered by many to be the starting point for solving the ecological problems facing the planet. 'Renewables' are generally considered alternatives to traditional sources of energy (e.g. oil or coal), such as solar and wind. Their use is either direct (mainly for heating) or after conversion to other forms of energy (mainly electricity or mechanical energy). It is estimated that the technically exploitable energy potential of the green forms of energy is a multiple of the global total energy consumption. But the recent high cost of new energy applications, technical implementation problems, and political and economic considerations related to maintaining the status quo in the energy sector have prevented widespread adoption.

The module aims to familiarise students with the

  • Concept of Renewable Energy Sources
  • Existing situation and future targets for Cyprus and Greec
  • Legislative requirements for RES and European Legislative Framework
  • Concept of Strengthening Energy Efficiency
  • Concept of energy policy
  • Air pollution and gaseous pollutants
  • Solar energy and legislation on solar energy and photovoltaic parks
  • Determination of the environmental impact of the creation of PV parks
  • Wind power and wind energy legislation
  • Determination of Environmental Impacts from the creation of wind park
  • Energy recovery technologies
  • Anaerobic digestion and Parameters influencing anaerobic digestion
  • Energy efficiency of buildings and Impacts of internal pollution

Module Content

The module first presents a historical overview on the use and transfer of energy, the forms of energy as well as renewable energy. Reference is made to the legal requirements of RES, as well as to the current situation of both Cyprus and Greece regarding RES issues and the objectives to be achieved under European Directives.  The EU priorities in energy policy and energy market are discussed. The course reports and delves into traditional and emerging new energy suppliers and tackles geostrategic issues. It analyzes the importance of the EU's 2020, 2030 and 2050 targets. In addition, it focuses on solar energy as a source of electricity, as well as the current situation in Cyprus and Greece, and the objectives that EU Member States must meet. It presents the education of students in a Power Generation Lab. It includes experiential training with visits to Photovoltaic Parks and an explanation of the theory in practice. Equipment used to control the panels will be presented.

The purpose of this module is to help students understand the state of their photovoltaic controls. It emphasizes wind energy as a source of electricity production as well as the current situation in Cyprus and Greece, and the objectives to be achieved by EU Member States.  It deals with Biomass, where reference is made to the concept of biomass, the sources of biomass and its applications, as well as the disadvantages, while at the end the situation in Cyprus and Greece on biomass issues is presented. Emphasis is placed on energy crops, organic waste. At the same time thermochemical and biochemical processes are analyzed. Moreover, it presents the technologies used for energy recovery. The technologies of gasification, combustion, pyrolysis as well as the energy analysis of each method will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be analyzed and presented.

It includes experiential training with visits to a biogas plant and an explanation of the theory in practice. It presents the basics related to bioclimatic design and indoor air quality. This is done with the view to make students understand the importance of reducing the energy consumption of buildings, the way this can be achieved, the basic laws of Cyprus and Greece, the concept of zero-consumption building as well as the basic requirements of bioclimatic planning. Bioclimatic planning in addition to energy consumption in a room is also related to the concept of indoor air quality as well as the factors that influence and the effects caused by indoor air pollution.


The module also includes key elements related to the energy performance of buildings. The purpose is to understand the importance of reducing the energy consumption of buildings, the way this can be achieved, the basic laws of Cyprus and Greece, the concept of zero-consumption building. Processes and methodologies for building energy efficiency will also be developed.

The following thematic topics are covered:

  • Introduction to Energy Matters. the State of play today - Legislation
  • Energy Policy - Energy Market
  • Air Pollution
  • Solar power
  • Laboratory exercises
  • Wind power
  • Biomass
  • Recovery of Energy from Waste
  • Recovery of Energy from Waste
  • Hydropower
  • Bioclimatic design
  • Energy efficiency in buildings

Module Purpose and Objectives 

The module's main objective is to address the phenomenon of climate change from multiple perspectives and approach the impacts it is expected to have in the Natural and the Anthropogenic Environment of the Mediterranean, with special focus on Greece and Cyprus. Furthermore, the Thematic Unit examines the adaptation measures that need to be taken to tackle climate change impacts on aquatic systems, on the coastal and marine environment, on terrestrial and forest ecosystems, on agricultural systems, as well as in the fields of human health protection, in energy, transport and infrastructure and in the Mediterranean urban environment. Additionally, the Thematic Unit examines the cost and benefits of climate change adaptation, as well as measures that could lead to climate change mitigation, by presenting the advantages and disadvantages of available solutions.

Students successfully completing this Thematic Unit are expected to be able to: 

  • Identify the impacts of climate change in the Natural and the Anthropogenic Environment.
  • Comprehend, realize, and propose fit-for-purpose administrative measures to adapt to climate change per environmental sector facing its impacts.
  • Identify the cost and benefits of adapting to climate change.
  • Identify measures that lead to climate change mitigation.

Module Content

The module examines key terms and concepts that relate to global climate change, the factors that determine it, as well as the characteristics of Mediterranean climate, placing special emphasis on the Eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, it analyses the anthropogenic factors that cause recent global climatic change, the magnitude of climatic changes on a global scale, but also in Europe, in the Mediterranean, in Greece, and in Cyprus. In addition to these, the Thematic Unit examines global and regional climate model projections for the 21st century. 

Moreover, the module, examines the already evident, as well as expected impacts of climate change on aquatic systems, on the coastal and marine environment, on terrestrial and forest ecosystems as the principal components of the Natural Environment in the Mediterranean. In addition, it addresses climate change impacts on agricultural systems, on human health protection, on energy, on transports and infrastructure networks and on the urban sector as the principal components of the Anthropogenic Environment in the Mediterranean.

The module emphasizes on adaptation measures needed to be taken to face the expected climate change impacts.

Moreover, it seeks to investigate the cost and benefits of climate change adaptation, as well as measures for climate change mitigation, by presenting the advantages and disadvantages of available solutions.

In addition to using the available theoretical framework and case studies, it includes laboratory exercises with original data for assessing regional climatic change or regional environmental risks per sector, helping students to assimilate new knowledge e.g. for assessing regional changes in climate or bioclimate or for assessing the risks addressed by particular environmental sectors.

Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:13

DPP612: Biological Conservation

Module Purpose and Objectives 

Conservation Biology is the scientific study of the phenomena which influence biodiversity conservation, loss and restoration of biodiversity.  During this course the student will study the main constituent elements of terrestrial ecosystems, the threats they face and the main approaches used for their protection. The objectives of the module:

  • Convey the theory and application of conservation biology.
  • Familiarize students with the practical aspects of conservation projects.
  • Present the importance and the threats that biological diversity faces in a human-dominate landscape
  • Promote the application of ecological concepts to conservation problems
  • Demonstrate the use of appropriate techniques in the solution of problems in terrestrial ecosystem conservation, using real world examples.

By successfully completing this course the student should be able to : 

  • Link the theory and practice of conservation biology and terrestrial ecosystem protection
  • Draft/Design monitoring plans for species and habitats
  • Design and evaluate Protected Areas
  • Employ specialised software for ecological data analysis (PAST, SIMILE, CANOCO, FRAGSTATS, HARVESTLite,)

 

Module Content 

1. Biodiversity and Conservation: definitions, life on earth, biodiversity and geological time, endogenous, extinction, species and taxonomic groups, levels of diversity,

2. Biodiversity mapping & patterns: area-species relationship, biogeographical areas, high and low biodiversity areas, biodiversity gradients,

3. Biodiversity Assessment and Measurement: Abundance / Richnness, Alpha Beta and Gamma Diversity, Species Richness Indicators, Diversity Indicators, Eveness, Similarity-Diversity

4. Threats, pressures and biodiversity loss: species extinction, population populations and genetic diversity, biodiversity exploitation, habitat loss and fragmentation, degradation, scale and pressures, red lists

5. Landscape Ecology Principles: Landscape Concept, Structure, Functions, Changes, Spatial Patterns, Heterogeneity, Patch-Corridor-Matrix MetaPopulations

6. Landscape Ecology – Measuring patterns and processes: scale, level of organization, processes, resolution, landscape composition, landscaping, metrics / indicators

7. Landscape Ecology – Design and Planning: ecological networks, green and blue networks, cores, corridors, buffer zones, areas of sustainable use, coherence, connectivity (physical, functional)

8. Invasive Species: endemic and invasive species and their history in the Mediterranean, impacts on native fauna and flora, agriculture, genetic diversity, ecosystem impacts, socio-economic impacts

9. In-situ, ex situ, inter situ conservation: purposes and uses of the three approaches, relationship between them, methods and techniques, protected areas, botanical gardens, genebanks

10.Nature Conservation Evaluations and Protected Areas: Conservation Principles, Evaluation Criteria, Prioritization, Ecological Networks, Identification of Conservation Gaps, Systematic Conservation Planning and Protected Areas

11.Protected Areas - Natura 2000: Concept of Protected Areas and Worldwide Distribution, International, European and National (Greece - Cyprus) Institutional Framework, Natura 2000, Sites of Community Importance, Special Protection Areas, Priority Habitats, Effectiveness and efficiency, Climate change and Protected Areas

12.Monitoring and Inventorying of species and habitats: Concepts of Inventory and Monitoring, Monitoring and Management, Methodological Frameworks for Habitats and Species, Indicators

13. Socio-economics and policies for biodiversity: the values ​​of biodiversity, direct and indirect use, institutional framework and major international treaties, social conflicts

Hands on laboratory exercises will take place with the use of freeware such as SIMILE (population models), PAST (diversity indices), FRAGSTATS (landscape ecology), HARVESTLite (spatial pattern analysis). In addition, with the help of Virtual Labs students will be able to take part in sampling and mapping activities in a simulated landscape

Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:10

DPP611: Liquid and Solid Waste Management

Module Purpose and Objectives 

DPP 611 is a Module of Specialization (CS). The purpose of the module is to provide students with the skills which will assist him / her professionally in the field of pollution (waste, detergent technologies, environmental management).

Waste is generally a major cause of deterioration of the urban and natural environment with enormous environmental, economic and social impacts. Managing them is therefore a complex issue with economic, social and environmental dimensions. The magnitude of the problem is typical of the social reactions and conflicts that have occurred over time in many areas. Waste (solid and liquid) results from the production, transportation, processing and consumption of goods and poses risks to human health, many of which are invisible. Stakeholders must work together for rational integrated management, as it is an integral part of sustainable and sustainable development, while minimizing adverse effects on society and the environment. The aim is to optimize waste materials by maximizing recycling and energy recovery.


At the same time all the goods and services in all three sectors of the economy (primary, secondary, tertiary) require huge amounts of energy to be produced. Energy from natural resources, from biomass, from renewable sources, from nuclear fission etc. As a result of reckless waste of resources, energy consumption and waste generation, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, water pollution, pollution soil, desertification, impacts on biodiversity, the constant need for energy and food, pollution of the seas.

In line with the principles of Sustainable Development, we must contribute to the economic, environmental and socio-cultural sustainability of each region. Through this course we will try to analyze concepts and technologies related to pollution so that students are able to address some of the major environmental problems that plague both Cyprus and Greece. 

 

Module Content 

Overall, the course will cover the following topics:

  • Water Chemistry
  • Pollution Parameter
  • Industrial Waste
  • Biological Treatment
  • Physical – Chemical – Biological Process
  • Chemical Oxidations
  • Laboratory in Liquid waste
  • Solid waste management
  • Solid Waste Catalogue
  • Circular Economy
  • Industrial Symbiosis
  • Life Cycle Analysis
  • Multi Criteria Analysis
  • Laboratory on Solid waste

This course makes extensive references to water management, water cycle, quality characteristics, treatment technologies, water pollution, etc. The most important pollution parameters related to the control and pollution of water and waste water will be mentioned. Hereafter, the sources of eutrophication are referred to the sources of origin, the consequences - effects and the biological, chemical and physical indicators taken into account in the appearance of eutrophication.


It deals with liquid industrial waste, its origin and composition, and the parameters to be taken into account for its proper and complete treatment. The industrial waste resulting from various industrial activities, such as e.g. dairies, tanneries, mills etc. The course focuses on the operating principles of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Reference is made to the treatment methods and the steps followed for the complete removal of the pollutant load with particular emphasis on biological treatment.


It discusses and illustrates the processes used to treat waste water. Physical processes will analyze the role of grating, cartilage reduction, flow equilibration, gravity separation theory, floatation etc. In Chemical Processes the role of processes in chemical processing, chemical waste and chemical treatment will be presented. as well as the method of metal precipitation by chemical precipitation and ion exchange. In the biological processes the technique of aerobic biological oxidation, biological nitrification of denitrification will be developed.

Emphasis is placed on waste treatment technologies by presenting a range of environmentally friendly technologies that consume minimal energy and minimize negative environmental impacts. The characteristics of solid waste are analyzed and presented and the basic categories as described and coded in the European waste list. Waste composition techniques and methods will be presented. The streams of Municipal Solid Waste, Industrial Solid Waste, Demolition Waste, Special Type Waste, Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes will be presented. New EU policies will focus on waste treatment based on the model of cyclical economy and industrial co-existence for waste management.


Life Cycle Assessment models will be presented and analyzed as an environmental impact assessment method. LCA is a technique of assessing the environmental impacts associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying the energy and materials used, as well as the waste released to the environment, assessing the impacts from the use of energy and materials as well and waste and recognizing and appreciating the potential for environmental improvements.


Finally, students will be presented with laboratory exercises and decision-making practices with multicriteria analysis methods in real scenarios.

Module Purpose and Objectives 

The purpose of this module is to provide students with solid theoretical and practical foundations in aquatic ecology and aquatic ecosystems so that they acquire the basic knowledge and skills needed to be able to perform management and conservation decision-making for aquatic ecosystems.

The specific objectives of the module are the assessment of the ecological quality and the water management at a river basin level, according to the WFD 2000/60 EU, as well as the promotion of the interdisciplinary approach and the creation of specialized scientific staff who can take up relevant roles in organisations which deal with aquatic ecosystem management.

The learning objective of the module is the theoretical and practical training of students in the approach of monitoring and management of aquatic ecosystems at the river basin level.

In this module, both basic theoretical knowledge (Background-General Knowledge, Science Area and Skills Development) and environmental management tools for aquatic ecosystems such as statistical univariate and multivariate analyses are provided i.e. the implementation of indices for the assessment of the ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems and the riparian zone. The tools presented reflect the up to date European directives and national laws.

The ultimate goal of the module is for students to acquire an ecological and practical understanding on water resources management, which will result in direct and indirect positive implications on environmental protection and the social and economic national development context.

The student who will successfully complete this module should be able to

  • Distinguish between different types of aquatic ecosystems.
  • Collect the necessary data in order to separate modified from reference areas.
  • Implement indicators to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystems based on biomarkers.
  • Perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

 

Module Content 

  • Water as a natural resource, water balance
  • Structure and productivity of aquatic ecosystems
  • Abiotic environment-Water Chemistry - inorganic and organic compounds, temperature, oxygen, salinity, inorganic carbon, N, P, Fe, S, Si, cycles
  • Biotic environment- trophic relationships
  • Water Protection:
    1. Convention and protection designations- Ramsar sites, NATURA 2000, Special Protected Areas (SPAs), Sites of Community Interest (SCI)]
    2. European Directives –historical background
    3. Water Framework Directive WFD 2000/60EE – General principles- articles and requirements/obligations
  • Aquatic Ecosystems Typology: Classification systems - Τypes in the Mediterranean and at national level
  • Monitoring and Evaluation Tools for Aquatic Ecosystems: Biological Quality indicators: (phytoplankton, macrophytes, macro-invertebrates, fish) as evaluation indicators of water ecological quality
  • Riparian zone- indicators for quality evaluation of riparian vegetation (RHS, QBR, RQI).
  • Land uses - pressures at the watershed level - impacts - degradation (eutrophication, pollution, landfilling, climate change).
  • Laboratory-Collection and statistical data analysis. Collection of ecological data, control for differences (parametric vs non-parametric tests), testing for relationships (correlation, regression), exploratory data analysis (multivariate statistics), presentation and data interpretation.
  • EU Water Framework Directive WFD 2000/60EE:-Integrated Water resources management at the catchment level, WFD for arid and semi-arid environments - scarce water resources - dams and environment.
  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
  • The role of public consultation and education in the decision making process for sustainable water management

Module Purpose and Objectives 

Remote Sensing and GIS have become valuable tools for environmental science. The aim of this course is to provide students with the necessary skills in photointerpretation, digital imagery analysis and geospatial analysis so that they are able to use them in a range of environmental applications. The course objectives are to:

  • Introduce the concepts and principles of GIS and Remote Sensing
  • Demonstrate their role in environmental problems by using real world datasets
  • Present special topics of their application in environmental management
  • Provide skills for the use of the most common methods in geospatial analysis

By successfully completing this course the student should be able to:

  • Comprehend the necessity for a spatial approach in environmental problems
  • Use relevant software and ways of analysis and interpretation of geospatial data
  • Produce and manage geospatial data
  • Design and implement the necessary stages for geospatial analysis in environmental research.

 

Thursday, 17 February 2022 12:02

DPP521: Sustainable Development II

Module Purpose and Objectives 

The module, as a continuation of the Sustainable Development I module, aims at advancing into theoretical and practical concepts which were introduced in Sustainable Development I for the assessment of the current state of the environment. The subjects to be developed offer the necessary academic knowledge for the further specialization of the student, while developing his / her ability to recognize the main environmental tools available for environmental management.

Planning and decision making principles for managing natural resources, their inventory and analysis techniques and tools, land use planning and land management, are some of the topics to be analyzed. At the same time, emphasis will be placed on environmental economics, environmental studies and environmental management systems and standards.

Module Content

  • Introduction to design theory.
  • Operational research and multi-criteria decision-making in solving complex problems and alternatives designed to manage natural resources
  • The financial instruments (taxes, subsidies, tradable pollution permits) in the implementation of environmental policy
  • Pollution control policies.
  • Techniques in inventory and analysis of natural resources.
  • Environmental impact assessment of projects Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of products and / or services.
  • Environmental standards.
  • Environmental problems in an organization.
  • Environmental risk assessment.
  • Environmental standards.
  • ISO 14001-EMAS.
  • Safety and health systems.
  • Organization and identification of risks.
  • Create a security folder.
  • Risk Assessment Process.
  • Personal protection measures.
  • Environmental risk assessment.
  • Processes Safety/security.

• Land valuation, land uses, land policy.

Thursday, 17 February 2022 11:58

DPP513: Environmental Impact Assessment Tools

Module Purpose and Objectives 

Environmental management consists of managing the activities of a business or organization that has or can have an impact on the environment. Business activity has a significant impact on the environment, as it can be linked to both the extraction of raw materials for the production processes of a business and the end of its lifetime at the end of its life

This module introduces environmental management tools (ISO 14001, EMAS, Eco Label, SWOT-PESTEL analysis, LCA, EIA, etc.) and analyzes the available environmental tools for the creation and marketing of products and services that are friendly to the environment.

The student who will successfully complete the module is expected to be able to:

  • Identify environmental impact
  • Implement environmental management systems
  • Identify environmental impacts with life cycle analysis models
  • Identify the location of an organization in terms of its environmental performance

Module Content

Reference will be made to the public consultation issues adopted by the European Union (COM, 2002/704) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, with the aim of improving the quality of public policies, transparency and accountability and strengthening public confidence in governments. It is widely applied in policy making.

Reference will be made to the issues of the Environmental Management System such as the ISO 14001, EMAS, ECO LABEL series. How these are developed and implemented. A variety of applications will be presented in the form of a laboratory and an organization will be selected to develop the ISO 14001, EMAS, ECO LABEL System.

A general introduction will be made in the EIA studies how and when those implemented.

Moreover the course will cover in general issues like Health and Safety in the working environment, environmental risk and the methods that are been use to identifying the risk.

Hence the course will emphasise in the Analytical Hierarchy Process as well as in SWOT and PESTEL analysis.

Data related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of products and / or services will be presented. LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental impacts associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying the energy and materials used, as well as the waste released to the environment, assessing the effects of energy and materials use and waste and recognizing and assessing the potential for environmental improvements.

Laboratory exercises with real data will be conducted to determine the environmental impact through life cycle analysis models.

Thursday, 17 February 2022 11:44

DPP512: Research Methods

Module Purpose and Objectives 

The purpose of this module is to provide the student with the knowledge and tools necessary to be able to deepen and successfully engage with environmental research in all its phases. An overview of the role of research in promoting knowledge is emphasized, with emphasis on the specificities of environmental research using examples and case studies. The goals of the module are to:

- Introduce student to Research Methodology
- Demonstrate the particularities of environmental research
- Combine theory with practice to answer research questions
- Provides equipment for the use of the most commonly used statistical methods

 

By successfully completing this course the student should be able to:

  • Comprehend the necessity for a spatial approach in environmental problems
  • Use relevant software and ways of analysis and interpretation of geospatial data
  • Produce and manage geospatial data
  • Design and implement the necessary stages for geospatial analysis in environmental research.

 

Module Content

Weekly Content

  1. Research Methodology Theory: definitions, types of scientific research, stages of research, operational plan in scientific research, funding and research ethics
  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods: main characteristics of qualitative and quantitative research, principal methods in qualitative and quantitative research, questionnaires and interviews

3. Data sources and data collection: main data sources, primary vs secondary data, data quality, phases of literature reviews

4. Experimental Design: experiments, dependent and independent variables, response, direct comparisons, repetition, sampling, random sample selection, block design, comparative design, experimental approaches

5. Field Study: historical evolution of field studies, Field study topics, observation skills, Field study types, Field study design, Field study implementation, Real World examples

6. Visualization – Presentation of Research Results: Construction and Interpretation of visual representation, data representation models, frequent errors in data presentation

7. Scientific Writing: Main forms of scientific writing, similarities and differences, writing skills, dissertation aim and structure, topic selection and research proposal writing, main parts of scientific paper, peer review journals

8. Descriptive Statistics: mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, data distributions, z-value, research and null hypothesis, statistical significance, accepting or not the null hypothesis, type I and II errors

9. Linear Regression: statistical model components and model construction, interpretation and evaluation of linear regression models

10. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): ANOVA with one and two factors, results interpretation, evaluation of results

11. Non-parametric statistics: comparing parametric and non-parametric test, presentation and results interpretation using tables, evaluation of the most common non-parametric tests (X2, Kruskal- Wallis, Friedman test)

12. Time series analysis: time series datasets, main ways of data processing, autocorrelation function, General Linear Model (GLM), Autoregression model (AR), Moving average models, Autoregressive moving average models, Autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA).

13. Exploratory Data Analysis: Construction of data diagrams, evaluation of data relationships, identification of mathematical relationship, Data trace plots, Probability plots, Scatter plots, Lag plots

Hands on laboratory exercises with the use of SPSS (parametric and non-parametric tests) will take place.

Thursday, 17 February 2022 11:38

DPP511: Sustainable Development I

Module Purpose and Objectives 

The module aims at providing a deeper understanding of the concepts which are necessary for the assessment of the current state of the environment. The subjects to be developed in this module offer the necessary academic knowledge for the further specialization of the student, while developing his / her ability to recognize impacts on the environment and natural resources.

The principles of managing natural resources, water resources and soil resources are some of the issues to be analyzed as dimensions of environmental science. At the same time, at a more practical level, emphasis will be placed on environmental planning, climate and climate change in the Mediterranean, integrated agriculture, environmental economics, environmental legislation & policy.

Module Content

  • Management and natural resources (definitions, management, exploitation and protection), their relations with the natural environment, as well as social needs, development, politics, economy and market mechanisms that affect exploitation and protection of natural resources.
    • The spatial distribution of natural resources, the distinction and classification of natural resources and their socio-economic impact, as well as the policies pursued by the European Union.
    • Sustainable management, sustainable development.
    • The basic principles and concepts of forest management.
    • The multiplicity of forest ecosystem functions, multiple use-management.
    • Non-renewable natural resources such as solid and liquid fuels, natural gas, minerals and ores
    • Economic evaluation of natural resources,
    • Sampling in inventory and analysis of natural resources.
    • Environmental law
    • The institutional framework (regulations, legislation, protocols and directives) governing ecologically sensitive areas, agriculture & forestry
    • The mechanisms for certification of agricultural production systems.
    • The legislative value of good agricultural production practices
    • Legal status and limitations of GMOs.
    • European forestry legislation and future developments in the forestry sector as defined by the Green Paper.
    • The natural resource "water" and the basic concepts of water management.
    • Recycling & reuse of water, desalination, dams and reservoirs.
    • The water footprint
    • The principles of organic farming
    • Organic farming and energy consumption.
    • The concept of Integrated Agriculture.
    • The Integrated Agriculture Certification Mechanism.
    • Integrated Agriculture Systems.
    • Integrated Cultivation Management Methods.
    • Climate, climate change, climate policy, desertification.
    • International conferences and conventions on climate and climate change.
    • Climate policies (adaptation policy, reduction policy).
    • Land valuation, land uses, land policy.